* Note: Some of these reference resources were accessed for the preliminary literature review in 2010.
Some links may no longer be active.

Alberta Education (2007). English as a Second Language: Guide to Implementation K-9.

Bow Valley College: ESL Literacy Network. Essentials for LIFE.

British Columbia Ministry of Education (2009). Students from Refugee Backgrounds: a Guide for Teachers and Schools.

Canada Citizenship and Immigration. Refugees. Retrieved April 4, 2011 from

Churchill, S & Kaprielian-Churchill, I (1994). The Pulse of the World, Refugees in our Schools. Toronto: OISE Press.

Fantino. A & Colak, A. (2001). Refugee Children in Canada: Searching for Identity. Child Welfare LXXX, (5) 587-596.

Lee, E. (1988). Cultural Factors in working with Southeast Asian refugee adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 2, 176-179.

MacKay, T. & Travares, T. (2005). Building Hope: Appropriate Programming for Adolescent and Young Adult Newcomers of War-affected Backgrounds and Manitoba Schools: A Preliminary report for Consultation and Discussion (2005). Manitoba Education, Citizenship and Youth.

Queen’s Printer for Ontario (2008). Supporting English Language Learners with Limited Prior Schooling: A Practical Guide for Ontario Educators, Grades 3 – 12. Retrieved from

Refugee Education Partnership Project (2007). The    Education Needs of Young Refugees in Victoria. Retrieved from

Sutherland, E. (2008). Refugee Children and Families: A Model for Successful Integration. Calgary, AB: Edna Sutherland and Associates.

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. UNHCR Global Appeal.